Gigabit Passive Optical Network – GPON
GPON stands for Gigabit Passive Optical Networks. As more and more ELV and computer systems being implemented in a building, the demand of network bandwidth increases too. GPON technology is the solution to fulfil the large bandwidth demand and to maintain the network consistency and speed for all the systems in the same network.
GPON architecture is less costly than a standard Ethernet. It is using a single fiber cable to serve all the systems, the need for networking hardware decreases. The setup cost and space required for servers and networking peripherals reduced.
The GPON technology has relatively fewer electrical and moving parts than in a standard network. In other words, using GPON will lower the risk of downtime. This is super important for 24/7 ELV Systems and Building Management System (BMS).
GPON is defined by ITU-T recommendation series G.984. GPON represents an increase in bandwidth compared with APON and BPON. GPON can be applied in many areas. In fiber to the desktop (FTTD) application, GPON is distributed via single-mode, simplex optical fiber connectors, and passive optical splitter typically using angled polish connectors (APC) to provide precision terminations. There are four main components in this GPON system: the optical line terminal (OLT), the transmitting media (cabling and components), the fiber optical splitter, and the optical network terminal (ONT).
GPON technology Malaysia is being deployed to provide broadband service; among other access technology such as Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL). GPON technology utilizes fiber optic to connect the central office equipment (Optical Line Terminal-OLT) to the customer device (Optical Network Unit –ONU). By using deductive approach, secondary data from Telekom Malaysia’s (TM) network inventory list is used to determine the number of access network equipment deployed in the entire network. The maximum power consumption for all access network equipment is identified based on the hardware specification and converted to carbon emission. This conversion is based on GHG protocol Scope 2 (Indirect Emission) where the carbon emission is estimated based on the purchased electricity. Based on the analysis, it is found out that the impact of GPON technology on power consumption per subscriber and annual carbon footprint are less than other fixed access technologies deployed in Malaysia.
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